-- General Kinds of Food in Korea --
By Korea Tourism Organization
For this blog post, we will be giving you a brief overview of what to expect of Korean dishes, Korean food when you come visit Korea. Note that there are so much more variations and combinations of food and ingredients, than simply what is presented in this post.
| Main Dishes |
1. Bap (Rice)
- Bap, a staple of Korean food, is steamed rice. There are many kinds of bap depending on the ingredients such as huinbap (white rice); japgokbap (rice with barley, millet, and beans); byeolmibap (rice with vegetables, seafood and meat); and bibimbap (rice mixed with namul and beef).
2. Juk (Porridge)
- Juk is one of the Korean dishes that was developed in early times. It consists of grains simmered for a long time with 5 to 7 times the volume of water. Juk is usually served to patients and eaten for health.
3. Guksu (Noodles)
- Korean noodles are made by kneading wheat flour or buckwheat flour and drawing the dough into long coils. There are many varieties of noodle dishes ranging from hot to cold, and combined with other ingredients.
| Side Dishes |
1. Guk (Soup)
- Guk is a soup of vegetables, seafood and/or meats boiled in plenty of water. Some varieties are malgeun-jangguk (clear soy sauce soup), tojangguk (soybean paste soup), gomguk (rich beef soup) and naengguk (chilled soup). The standard Korean table setting always has bap and guk.
2. Jjigae (Stew)
- Jjigae has less water and more solid ingredients than soup, and it is saltier. Varieties include malgeun-jjigae (clear jjigae), toenjang-jjigae (soybean paste jjigae), and kimchi jjigae
3. Jeongol (Hot Pot)
- Jeongol started as a royal court food. It consists of meat, seafood, mushrooms and vegetables simmered in broth at the table just before serving as a dish. It has become less common now due to the prevalence of other Hot Pot dishes or Shabu Shabu.
4. Jjim (Steamed Dish)
- Jjim is a dish of main ingredients cooked with seasonings in deep water. It may be boiled with soup just above the solid ingredients, or steamed. An example is Kimchi-jjim, with boiled pork and a kimchi-based broth.
5. Jorim (Braised dish)
- Jorim is a cooking method to braise meat, seafood or vegetables with soy sauce or red pepper paste on low heat. The ingredients are cooked for a long time to allow the flavors to seep in. An example is Galchi-jorim, similar to a Jjim dish, has minimal soup.
6. Bokkeum (Stir-fried dish)
- Bokkeum is a stir-fry of meats, seafood or vegetables. There are two types of bokkeum dishes; one is just stir-fried in an oiled frying pan, the other one is stir-fried with soy sauce and sugar. A popular example is Jeyuk Bokkeum
7. Gui (Grilled dish)
- Gui is a dish of grilled meats, seafood or vegetables as is, or grilled after seasoning. It will have no soup, or broth.
8. Jeon. Jeok (Pan-fried dish. Brochette)
- Jeon is a dish of pan-fried meats, seafood or vegetables after they have been minced or sliced and coated with wheat flour and beaten egg. Jeok is a dish of pan-fried ingredients after they have been seasoned and skewered. An example is haemul-pajeon, which is a seafood variation of the Korean pancake jeon.
9. Hoe. Pyeonyuk. Jokpyeon (Raw fish/Raw meat. Pressed meat. Pressed trotters)
- Hoe is a dish of raw meat, fish or vegetables seasoned with vinegar soy sauce, vinegar red pepper paste, or mustard. It can also be blanched in boiling water. Pyeonyuk is a dish of pressed and sliced beef or pork. Jokpyeon is a dish of long-simmered ox-head and ox-feet that is solidified and sliced.
10. Mareun-chan (Dry side dish)
- Mareun-chan is a dry side dish made of salted and seasoned meat, seafood and/or vegetables that can be stored for a long time. It is enjoyed dried or fried. Dishes such as Mareun-Squid, can also be enjoyed as a side dish for liquor.
11. Jangajji (Pickled Vegetables)
- Jangajji is a side dish of pickled vegetables that include Korean radish, cucumbers, bellflower roots and garlic in soy sauce, soybean paste or red pepper paste. It can be stored for a long time.
12. Jeotggal (Salt-fermented Seafood)
- Jeotggal is a side dish of marinated shrimp, anchovies or clams with salt that is fermented. It is served as a side dish or used as a seasoning. A popular variation is squid jeotggal.
13. Saengchae (Fresh Salad)
- Saengchae is a seasonal fresh salad dressed with vinegar soy sauce, red pepper paste or mustard. It is sweet and sour. This method of preparation is best for preserving the taste and most of the nutrition in the ingredients.
14. Kimchi (Seasoned and fermented vegetables)
- Kimchi is a dish made by marinating Korean cabbage and Korean radish with salt, seasoning it with red pepper, garlic, green onion, ginger and salt-fermented seafood, mixing it thoroughly and letting it ferment. Kimchi is the quintessential side dish in Korea. There are also many variations of kimchi, such as cucumber, lettuce or cabbage. The taste also changes, depending how long you ferment the kimchi.
| Desserts |
1) Tteok (Rice Cake)
- Tteok is a dish made by steaming, frying, or boiling rice powder or other grain powder after it has been sprinkled with water. It is served at ceremonies and holidays without fail.
2) Hangwa (Korean cookies)
- Hangwa are traditional Korean cookies. There are many varieties depending on the ingredients or recipes such as yumilgwa, gangjeong, sanja, dasik, jeonggwa, suksilgwa, gwapyeon, yeotgangjeong and yeot.
3) Sikhye (Rice tea)
- Sikhye is a popular Korean dessert rice tea, and is popular in steamed saunas and jjimjilbangs.
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