Equipment manufacturing has made significant strides forward in China since the country designated it as a national development strategy in 2005. Many large-scale pieces of equipment have advanced to the world's advanced level, if not the world's top level, thanks to improvements in manufacturing capabilities, which are primarily concentrated in China. Despite advances in technology, the manufacturing industry as a whole remains backward, and this backwardness can be traced to the backwardness of precision manufacturing. Technology for ultra-precision processing is a critical supporting technology for modern high-tech warfare. It also serves as a foundation for the development of modern high-tech industries as well as science and technology, and it serves as a development direction for modern manufacturing science.
Modern science and technology are developed through experiments, and almost none of the testing instruments and equipment that are required do not require the assistance of ultra-precision processing technology cnc machining. The transition from macroscopic to microscopic manufacturing is one of the manufacturing development trends that will take place in the coming years. At the moment, ultra-precision machining has progressed to the nanometer scale, and nano-manufacturing is the cutting-edge topic in ultra-precision machining research and development. It is extremely important to the developed countries of the world.
In the early stages of ultra-precision machining development,
It is currently the goal of ultra-precision machining to achieve the ultimate shape accuracy, dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, surface integrity (no or very little surface damage, including micro-cracks and other defects) and organizational changes while not changing the physical properties of the workpiece material, as well as the highest level of dimensional accuracy.
The research content of ultra-precision machining, that is, the various factors that influence the accuracy of ultra-precision machining, includes the following topics: ultra-precision machining mechanism, processed materials, ultra-precision machining equipment, ultra-precision machining tools, ultra-precision machining fixtures, ultra-precision machining detection and error Compensation, ultra-precision processing environment, ultra-precision machining detection and error CompensationScholars cnc milling parts from both domestic and international institutions have been conducting systematic research on these topics for a long time. The following three stages have been involved in the development of ultra-precision machining.
In the 1950s and 1960s, America was a pioneer in developing single-point diamond cutting technology, which was used in the processing of laser fusion mirrors and spherical and aspherical large parts in the fields of aerospace, defense, astronomy, and other fields of science and technology.
In the 1980s and 1990s, it entered the early stages of application in private industry, where it remained until the present. Companies such as Moore and Pritech in the United States, Toshiba and Hitachi in Japan, and Cranfield in Europe have commercialized ultra-precision processing equipment and begun using it in the production of precision optical lenses for civilian applications with the assistance of the government. Single ultra-precision processing equipment is still difficult to come by and is prohibitively expensive, with most of it being customized in the form of special machines. Although ultra-precision diamond grinding technology and grinders that can process hard metals as well as hard and brittle materials appeared during this time period, their processing efficiency could not be compared to that of diamond lathes.
3) Beginning in the 1990s, civil ultra-precision processing technology began to mature. Ultra-precision processing technology is being driven by industries such as automobiles, energy, medical equipment, information, optoelectronics, and communications. It is being used in the processing of aspheric optical lenses, ultra-precision molds, disk drive heads, disk substrates, semiconductor substrates, and other parts. Precision spindle parts, rolling guides, hydrostatic guides, micro-feed drives, precision CNC systems, and laser precision inspection systems, among other related technologies, have gradually matured to the point where ultra-precision processing equipment is now a standard part of the manufacturing process in industry. a piece of equipmentApart from that, the accuracy of the equipment is steadily approaching the nanometer level, the size range of the workable workpieces is becoming increasingly large, and the range of applications is becoming increasingly diverse. With the advancement of numerical control technology, new technologies such as ultra-precision five-axis milling and flying cutting have emerged. It has been possible to process complex parts such as non-axisymmetric aspheric surfaces that were previously impossible to process.
The advancement of ultra-precision machining technology in other countries
The United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan are the countries where ultra-precision machining technology is at the forefront of the world's manufacturing industry. Not only do these countries have a high overall level of complete sets, but they also have a very high degree of commercialization in the ultra-precision processing technology.
It was in the 1950s that the United States did not develop the ultra-precision diamond cutting technology known as SPDT technology (Single Point Diamond Turning) or micro inch technology (1 microinch = 0.025mm), nor did it develop the corresponding air bearing technology. The main shaft's ultra-precision machine tool is used to process large spherical and aspherical parts for applications such as laser fusion mirrors, tactical missiles, and manned spacecraft.
Diamond tools are cut with extremely high precision.
LLL National Laboratory in the United States successfully developed two large-scale ultra-precision diamond lathes in 1986, one of which is a horizontal DTM-3 with a machining diameter of 1.65m and the other of which is 1.65m cnc components. The LLL National Laboratory was established in 1986 to research and develop large-scale ultra-precision machine tools for the military. The LODTM vertical large-scale optical diamond lathe is a vertical large-scale optical diamond lathe. Among these, the LODTM vertical large-scale optical diamond lathe is widely regarded as the world's most precise and ultra-precision machine tool. Later, the United States developed a large 6-axis CNC precision grinding machine for precision grinding of large optical mirrors, which was later exported to other countries.
It is a one-of-a-kind representative of the level of ultra-precision machining technology in the United Kingdom. The Cranfield Institute of Precision Engineering (CUPE) is affiliated with the Cranfield Institute of Technology and is affiliated with the Cranfield Institute of Technology. For example, the Nanocentre (nano machining center) manufactured by CUPE can perform ultra-precision turning, as well as ultra-precision grinding with a grinding head. The processed workpiece has a shape accuracy of 0.1 mm and a surface roughness of Ra 10 nm, both of which are excellent.
A multi-function three-coordinate cnc turning machine (table area 2500mm2500mm) was successfully developed by Cranfield Precision Machining Center in 1991, and it can be used to process (grind, turn) and measure precision free-form surfaces. A large-scale reflector in the shape of a 7.5-meter diameter in an astronomical telescope can also be processed by the machine, which employs the method of joining machining parts together.
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