Make references as you write. The Chicago Manual of Style uses two different styles of reference: "Notes and Bibliography" and "Author and Date." The format of the reference that you will place within the text will depend on the style that you will use.
- Like in examples in this blogpost https://meowessay.com/blog/bullying-essay/, if you are going to use the "Notes and bibliography" style, after each in-text citation, you place a superscript and a corresponding footnote at the bottom of the page. Then, you collect all the footnotes on a footnote page at the end of the document, on the bibliography page.
- If you are going to use the "Author and date" style, the references within the text are placed in parentheses and include the author's last name and the year of publication without any punctuation between the two. Then, on the references page, you put the full version of all the references in parentheses that you have incorporated into the text and order them alphabetically. For example, in the reference "(Simon 2011)", "Simon" is the author's last name and "2011" in the year.
- Immediately after each sentence in which there is information that is not your original, you must include a reference. Information of this type includes paraphrasing, data, statistics, quotes, and examples.
Gather information. When researching for your essay, you should take note of all the bibliographic information you find. This refers to the title, the author, the publication, the year, the number of the volume and the edition, the place of publication, the website and even the date of access to the material (in case you found it online) .
- If the source is a book, be sure to record any relevant information that you can find on the copyright page. This includes the name of the publisher and the city and year of publication.
- Information of this type in other sources can be found near the title of the work. On websites, the publication date is usually at the bottom.
Use the "Notes and Bibliography" style if they tell you to. Scholars in the humanities area (that is, literature, history, and the arts) prefer this method (abbreviated as NB), as it allows a wide range of sources to be recorded in detail, which is not possible following the "Author and date ".
- The reference page should have the title "Bibliography", which should be at the top of the page and centered. Then, leave two blank spaces before the first entry and leave a space between each entry.
- The "Notes and Bibliography" style uses footnotes and endnotes. On the bibliography page, you should list all the sources in alphabetical order and with French indentation.
- This is an example of the format for a book: Surname, First name. Title of the book . City: Publisher, year.
- This is an example of the format for a chapter in a printed academic journal: Author's last name, First name. "Title of the chapter or article". Title of the book or magazine . Issue Number (Year): page number range. (If the article is from an academic journal published online, you must put "Date of access. URL address" at the end of the entry).
- This is an example of the format for a website: Website name. "Page title". Last modification date. Date of access. Url address.
- If the author is not known, you should start the entry with the title of the document (that is, the web page, the chapter, the article, etc.)
- If there is more than one author, the last name is placed first and then the name of the first author listed so that the entry is ordered alphabetically according to the last name of this author. Then the names of the following authors are named first: Alcott, Louisa May; Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Gaskell.
- All references must end with a period.
Use the "Author and date" style if prompted. This is the preferred style in science (ie, physical, natural, and social sciences) as it is a more concise style for documentation.
- For the "Author and Date" style, the reference page should be titled "References" at the top center of the page. Then, leave two blanks before the first entry and one space between each entry.
- The bibliography that follows the style "Author and date" must be in alphabetical order according to the author's last name (or according to the title if there is no author) and have French indentation.
- This is an example of the format for a book: Surname, First name. Year. Title of the book . Publication city: Editorial.
- This is an example of the format for a chapter in a printed academic journal: Author's last name, First name. Year. "Title of the chapter or article". Title of the book or magazine . Edition number: page numbers. (If the article is from an academic journal published online, you must put "Date of access. URL address" at the end of the entry).
- This is an example of the format for a website: Website name. Year. "Page title". Last modification date. Date of access. Url address.
- If you are assigned to write an essay or other written document following any of these styles, you should buy the corresponding style manual, since there you will find almost all the possibilities of references to sources, as well as the format that the fonts should have. sheets, as well as grammar and punctuation specific to that style.
- You don't need to write each bibliography or reference entry yourself. You can also download a reference management software, such as Endnote (although this will have to be purchased) or Zotero (free) or use websites such as http://www.bibme.org/ and http://www.easybib.com/ . There, before starting to generate the references, you can choose the style manual you want and then copy the reference and paste it into your bibliography or references page.
- In this article, there is only the way to make references to your research according to each style guide. However, each of them also has specific instructions regarding the essay format, such as headings, spacing, margins, font, etc.
SHARE WITH FRIENDS
Hello, I am Samantha, an essay writer and educator.